Dark Patterns: Deceptive Design Practices Manipulating User Choices


The Department of Consumer Affairs and the Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) recently held a joint consultation on the issue of “dark patterns” – deceptive design practices aimed at manipulating user choices. Dark patterns refer to deliberately crafted design techniques that deceive or manipulate users into making choices or taking actions that may not be in their best interest. This article explores the concept of dark patterns, their implications for user autonomy, and the need for regulatory measures to address this growing concern.

Understanding Dark Patterns:

Coined by user experience researcher Harry Brignull in 2010, dark patterns are deceptive strategies employed to trick users. These patterns involve design elements and interfaces intentionally crafted to influence user behavior, often at the expense of the user’s autonomy and decision-making. An example of a common dark pattern is the “sneak into basket” technique used on e-commerce websites. By automatically adding additional items to the user’s shopping cart without their explicit consent or clear notification, companies can mislead users into making unintended purchases, ultimately benefitting their own sales while compromising user choice.

Different Types of Dark Patterns :

Various dark pattern techniques are employed by businesses to downgrade user experiences for their own advantage. Some common practices include creating a false sense of urgency or scarcity during online shopping, employing confirm shaming to pressure users into conforming to certain beliefs, forcing users to sign up for services to access content, and advertising one product while delivering another of lower quality, known as the bait and switch technique. Hidden costs, disguised advertisements, and manipulative interfaces are other examples of dark patterns. These practices violate consumer rights and undermine transparency and informed decision-making.

Legality and Regulatory Response :

The legality of dark patterns is a complex issue, as distinguishing between manipulation and fraudulent intent can be challenging. Currently, there are no specific regulations against dark patterns in most countries. However, individuals who have suffered harm due to dark patterns may seek compensation for damages. In some cases, regulatory bodies have taken action against companies. For instance, in 2022, Google and Facebook faced repercussions for violating EU and French regulations by making it difficult for users to reject cookies compared to accepting them.

Global regulators are increasingly recognizing the need to address dark patterns. The Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) of the UK issued guidelines to businesses, listing pressure-selling techniques that violate consumer protection laws. The European Data Protection Board released guidelines offering practical advice on identifying and avoiding dark patterns that violate GDPR laws.

Addressing Dark Patterns

The Department of Consumer Affairs and the ASCI have acknowledged the issue of dark patterns and taken initial steps to address it. Companies have been urged to refrain from using such tactics, and major Indian online marketplaces received warnings against engaging in “unfair trade practices” through the implementation of dark patterns.

However, with the growing prominence of e-platforms, a robust legal framework is necessary. The Indian government should consider amending existing laws to specifically address dark patterns. This may involve introducing new rules targeting deceptive design practices and updating consumer protection and data protection legislation. Implementing stringent measures will safeguard user rights, enhance transparency, and promote ethical design practices.


Dark patterns represent a significant challenge in the digital realm, compromising user autonomy and decision-making. Businesses often employ these deceptive design techniques to influence user choices and maximize their own gains. While some regulators have taken steps to address dark patterns, more comprehensive legislation and regulatory frameworks are needed to protect users.

The Indian government, along with other global regulators, should work towards creating specific regulations to curb the use of dark patterns. By promoting transparency, informed decision-making, and user rights, the legal framework can ensure a fair and ethical digital landscape. Only through collective efforts and stringent measures can we counter the negative impact of dark p

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